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UK Visas and Immigration (UKVI ) is the branch of the Home Office responsible for running the UK’s visa service, considering applications for British citizenship, running the UK’s asylum service, deciding on applications from employers and educational establishments, and managing appeals from unsuccessful applicants.

UK national

The following people will be considered to be a UK National: anyone born in the UK before 1 January 1983; anyone born after 1 January 1983 to a British or a settled parent; anyone who has naturalised or registered as British; anyone whose father was British when they were born an was or is married to their mother; anyone born after 1 July 2006 to a British or settled father who is not married to his/her mother but does appear on the birth certificate or has been proved by the courts to be the father; anyone adopted by a British father in the UK before 1 January 1983; anyone born after 7 February 1961 to a British mother. In 2002, legislation extended the right to British citizenship to the following: citizens of the British Overseas Territories, but not the Soverign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia; and British overseas citizens, British subjects and British protected persons if they do not hold and have intentionally given up the citizenship of another country.

Ultra vires

An action that is beyond the legal power or authority of a person or organisation. This can be a ground for judicial review.


A promise made to another party or to the court. A breach of an undertaking made to the court may amount to a contempt of court.

Unfair term

Under consumer law, a term is unfair if it creates a substantial imbalance in the rights and obligations between a 'trader' and a 'consumer', to the detriment of the consumer.

Vexatious claim

A claim brought purely to annoy or oppress another party.


A contract that has no legal effect and can be repudiated or ignored.


A contract that is valid, but has a defect entitling one of the parties to have it revoked.


Where a person is more likely to suffer injury or harm than an ordinary person if having to sleep on the streets. This definition can be used in homelessness legislation to determine if a person has a priorty need for accommodation.