Attending a hearing

A hearing is a meeting at the court in front of the judge, where decisions can be made about your case. The most important hearing is the trial, which is when your case is decided. But before trial, there may be one or more hearings to decide how the case should be dealt with. These can be important, and sometimes the case can be decided at one of these hearings.

Whether to attend a court hearing

If there is a hearing involving your case, you should always go. If you don't go, decisions can be made in your absence and you may find the whole case has been decided against you. Even if you have agreed something with the other party, the court may not accept that agreement unless you are there in person.

The only reasons not to go are because:

  • your solicitor or adviser says you don't need to attend
  • the court tells you that the hearing has been cancelled or moved to another date.
  • you are unable to attend due to illness or family emergency. This must be something serious and unavoidable. A routine appointment or difficulty getting time off work is not a good reason. Tell your solicitor (if you have one) as soon as possible. If you don't have a solicitor, contact the court and find out what you need to do to change the date. If there is time, you may have to go to court to explain to the judge why the hearing should be moved

If you can't go, but haven't had time to contact the court or your legal adviser, telephone the court or ask someone to call for you to explain the problem.

Preparation for a court hearing

Make sure you understand what the hearing is about. Work out if you need to prepare anything beforehand and what you should take with you. This could include:

  • important documents. For the trial, you need all of your papers, but you may find it useful to have them at earlier hearings too
  • pens and paper for taking notes
  • a diary, to fix future court appointments
  • the address and telephone number of the court

Get advice if you don't understand a letter from the court or something happening in your case.

Use our directory to find an adviser in your area, or contact a solicitor.

Arriving at court for a hearing

The court papers tell you when and where your hearing is held. You should arrive at the court in good time. There are probably other cases scheduled to take place at the same time.

When you arrive, you should:

  • find out exactly where the hearing is taking place – there should be a list of cases displayed at the court
  • let the reception staff or court usher know that you are there to attend the hearing and if you have an adviser
  • ask to see the duty adviser if you don't have an adviser or representative to speak on your behalf

The court usher is a court officer who deals with the administration of court hearings. The usher has a list of all the cases to be heard by the judges that day. If you cannot find the usher, ask the person at the court front desk or reception where you can find the usher, where to wait and in which room the hearing takes place.

The usher decides in what order the cases are heard. If there are several cases on the same day, you may have a long wait until your case is called. If you don't arrive at court on time, you could miss your hearing.

If you are alone and need to go to the toilet or briefly need to leave the court, make sure you tell the usher, or you could miss your case being called.

Court etiquette


Trials, except in small claims cases and some possession hearings, are heard in large courtrooms. The court usher tells you when to come in, and where to sit. If you are representing yourself, or if you have a McKenzie friend (please see the section on representation for more information about this option), you should sit near to the front. If you have a solicitor or barrister, you should sit behind them. Other people such as witnesses sit at the back. The judge then comes in, and the usher asks everyone to stand. Then everyone sits down. The judge says who is to speak, and only that person stands up.


Usually the claimant (person who started the case) or their representative speaks first. They explain what the case is about, and then take the judge through the claimant's evidence. This usually involves showing the judge documentary evidence, explaining it, and calling witnesses. Documents should already be copied into files called 'trial bundles', and the judge should have a copy.


Witnesses are asked to come to the front, usually to a witness box. The claimant asks the witness to say what they saw and heard. At the end, the defendant can ask questions. The judge can ask questions at any time. The defendant (person who the case is against) or their representative speaks next. The defendant speaks to their witnesses first, and then the claimant can ask questions.

At the end of this, the claimant (the person making the claim) is allowed a chance to reply to any points made by the defendant and then end the case.

The Judge

The judge then makes a decision. This may be immediate in a straightforward case, but in a complicated case may take days or even weeks. The judge should say how long it will take.

In a possession hearing, the case is dealt with more quickly. There is no trial bundle, so you need to pass any documentary evidence to the usher, who hands it to the judge. But the procedure is basically the same.

In court, you should always address the judge. Strictly speaking, you should call her or him 'your honour' in the county court, but it is more important to be polite. Don't argue with the judge or the other party. If you believe the judge has misunderstood your point, you can explain it, without arguing about it. Make sure you say everything you want to say, and if there is something you don't understand ask the judge to explain. But don't interrupt the judge or the other party. Speak when it is your turn to speak. If you are represented, only speak when in the witness box, but if there is something you want your representative to say, pass him or her a note or whisper it quietly.

Chambers hearings

Small claims trials, some possession hearings and other hearings are held in a small room, called 'chambers'. Everyone sits round a table, with the district judge at one end. Strictly speaking, you should call the district judge 'sir' or 'madam', but it is more important to be polite.

Don't argue with the judge or the other party. If you believe the judge has misunderstood your point, you can explain it without arguing. Make sure you say everything you want to say, and if there is something you don't understand ask the judge to explain. But don't interrupt the judge or the other party. Speak when it is your turn to speak.

If it is a trial or possession hearing, the order of what happens is the same as in a courtroom. If it is a hearing to decide how the case is to be run, the district judge explains what they want each side to say.

The district judge then makes a decision. This is usually immediate.

Judgments made at a court hearing

When the judge makes a decision, this is called a 'judgment'. The judgment says what should happen next.

If the judgment says that someone must pay money, it also says when they must pay. If they don't pay in that time, the other party in the case can go back to court and ask the court to 'enforce the judgment'. If you owe money, pay the other party, and not the court. Get a receipt.

If you don't pay, you will have a county court judgment (CCJ) against you, and the other party might take steps to try to make you pay.

Get information from the court about enforcing your judgment if you are owed money, and it isn't paid. Use our directory to find an adviser who can help you. The court won't do anything unless you send the right forms.

Complaints about the outcome in court

it may be possible to appeal if you are not happy with the judgment. Get advice from a solicitor or specialist adviser as quickly as possible. There are short time limits for making appeals, often two weeks. Making an appeal can be difficult and it is difficult to win when you lost the original case.

Use our directory to find an advice centre in your area.

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