Injunctions to prevent nuisance or annoyance
Police or any social landlord can apply for an injunction to prevent nuisance or annoyance (IPNA) to stop antisocial behaviour of any person aged 10 or over.
Power to grant injunctions
An injunction to prevent nuisance or annoyance (IPNA) is also known a Part 1 injunction.
With effect from 23 March 2015, a county court may grant an IPNA against any person aged 10 or over if it is satisfied, on the balance of probabilities (ie the civil standards of proof), that: 
a person has engaged, or threatens to engage, in antisocial behaviour, and
it is just and convenient to grant the injunction for the purpose of preventing that person from engaging in antisocial behaviour
Antisocial behaviour is defined as conduct:
that has caused, or is likely to cause, harassment, alarm or distress to any person
capable of causing nuisance or annoyance to a person in relation to that person's occupation of residential premises
capable of causing housing-related nuisance or annoyance to any person
Applications against adults are made in the county court or High Court. Applications against those under 18 years old are made in the youth court.
The IPNA replaces a number of other antisocial behaviour injunctions and orders.
Types of IPNA
There are housing and non-housing related IPNAs.
Housing-related IPNAs can be granted where there is conduct capable of causing nuisance or annoyance to: 
a person in relation to that person's occupation of residential premises (regardless of tenure), or
any person that directly or indirectly relates to the housing management functions of a local authority or other social landlord
Non-housing related IPNAs are primarily designed to tackle antisocial behaviour in public places, such as A&E waiting rooms or bus stations.
A non-housing related IPNA can be granted where the behaviour does not affect the housing management functions of a social landlord, or people in their homes.
Who can apply for an IPNA
Only the following bodies can apply for a housing-related IPNA:
private registered provider of social housing (PRPSH)
charitable housing trust
housing action trust
The above bodies and Transport for London, NHS Protect and the Environment Agency can apply for a non-housing related IPNA.
A local authority or the police can apply for a housing-related IPNA against a person in any tenure, including privately rented accommodation and owner-occupied housing. A PRPSH, charitable housing trust or housing action trust can only apply for a housing-related IPNA where the antisocial behaviour relates to its housing management functions.
An application for a housing-related IPNA can be made in relation to a person living in or visiting residential premises.
Terms of an IPNA
Prohibitions and positive requirements
An IPNA must include a:
prohibition, requiring a person to stop doing something (for example playing music in the home after 8pm at night), and/or
a positive requirement aimed at getting a person to deal with the underlying cause of their antisocial behaviour (for example attending mediation classes with neighbours or an alcohol misuse course).
The prohibitions or positive requirements must be reasonable and, so far as practicable, must not:
interfere with a person's time at work or school (or other educational establishment)
conflict with requirements of any other court orders in force against that person
Exclusion from the home
An IPNA can exclude an adult from their home where the court thinks that either:
the person has engaged in violence, or threatened violence, against another person
there is a significant risk of harm to another person
Harm includes serious ill-treatment or abuse, whether physical or not. It could include emotional or psychological harm, such as harassment or racial abuse.
The power to exclude from the home does not apply to people aged under 18 years old.
Statutory guidance advises that the court will pay special attention to proportionality in light of the Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, and as such applications for exclusion should only be made in extreme cases.
For adults, any prohibition or requirement in the IPNA can be for a fixed period or 'until further order'. In the case of under 18 year olds the maximum period is 12 months.
Interim injunctions and 'without notice' applications
An interim IPNA can be granted pending a final hearing in order to prevent further antisocial behaviour during proceedings. In exceptional or urgent cases, for example where it is necessary to stop serious harm to victims, an interim injunction can be applied for 'without notice' to the alleged perpetrator.
An interim injunction made following a 'without notice' application can only include prohibitions, and not positive requirements.
Power of arrest
The court can attach a power of arrest to any prohibition or requirement in the IPNA where either:
the antisocial behaviour, consists of violence, or the threat of violence, against other persons
there is a significant risk of harm to other persons
A power of arrest cannot be attached to a requirement that the perpetrator participates in a particular activity.
A police officer can arrest the perpetrator without warrant if they have reasonable cause to believe that a breach of the IPNA has occurred. The police must then present the perpetrator to court within 24 hours of their arrest (except on Sundays, Christmas Day or Good Friday). 
Where a power of arrest has not been attached to the IPNA, the applicant can apply to the court that granted the injunction (or to a Justice of the Peace where the perpetrator is under 18) for an arrest warrant if it believes that the perpetrator has breached a term of the injunction.
Hearsay evidence and evidence from professional witnesses is permitted in all proceedings relating to IPNAs.
Statutory guidance advises that this allows for protecting the identities of those who are unable to give evidence due to fear or intimidation.
Variation and discharge of injunctions
The applicant or the perpetrator can apply to the court to vary or discharge the IPNA.
The powers of the court to vary the injunction include to:
remove or add a prohibition or requirement
reduce or extend the period for which a prohibition or requirement has effect
attach a power of arrest
Waiving a breach of an injunction
An applicant may waive the breach of an injunction.
The court may not be willing to accept that the consent of a person for whose benefit an injunction is obtained is sufficient to waive a breach. This is most likely where there is a public interest in maintaining that order, for example where an antisocial injunction had been put in place to restrict the areas a perpetrator can access.
Penalties for breach of IPNA
The maximum penalty for adults who breach a provision set out in an IPNA is up to two years imprisonment and/or an unlimited fine.
Under 18-year olds can be penalised by a supervision order, or for 14 to 17 year olds in the most serious cases, by a detention order of a maximum of three months.
Although the breach of an IPNA is a civil contempt of court, the criminal standard of proof, that is beyond reasonable doubt, is applied in proceedings in the county court or youth court.
In addition, where a court has found there has been a breach of an IPNA, this could lead to eviction of a secure or assured tenant under the mandatory ground for antisocial behaviour. The ground for possession only applies when the breach occurred:
in the locality, or
elsewhere if the IPNA was granted in order to prevent harassment, alarm or distress to:
a person who lives, or has a right to occupy accommodation, in the locality
the landlord or someone employed (whether or not by the landlord) in connection with the landlord's housing management functions
The ground for possession does not apply if the breach of the IPNA only relates to a failure to participate in a particular activity.
Legal aid may be available for people accused of antisocial behaviour and threatened with injunctions or committal following a breach of an injunction.
Both housing and criminal legal aid solicitors can provide advice and representation at court.
Anti-social Behaviour Injunctions (ASBIs) 
injunctions against unlawful use of premises 
injunctions against breach of tenancy agreement 
Anti-Social Behaviour Orders (ASBOs) 'on application', ie granted under civil proceedings 
From 23 March 2015, a court can no longer grant any of the above. An injunction or order made against an individual before that date continues to have effect and be dealt with under the earlier legislation until 23 March 2020, any still in force will be treated as an IPNA.
The Sentencing Council's definitive guidelines for breach of antisocial behaviour orders was held to apply equally to sentencing for breach of antisocial behaviour orders and injunctions made in the civil courts. As with IPNAs, the breach of an antisocial behaviour injunction or ASBO can lead to fines and/or imprisonment.
ASBOs 'on conviction' (that is the ASBO was made in addition to a sentence imposed in respect of a relevant offence) were replaced by Criminal Behaviour Orders with effect from 20 October 2014.
Last updated: 18 March 2021
s.1 Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014; Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014 (Commencement No.8, Saving and Transitional Provisions) Order 2015 SI 2015/373.
s.2(1) Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014.
s.19 Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014; ch2.2 Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014: Reform of anti-social behaviour powers, Home Office, July 2014.[s.2(1) Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014.]
s.2(1)(a)-(b) and s.2(3) Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014.
s.2(2) Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014.
s.5(3) Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014.
s.1(4) Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014.
s.1(5) Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014.
s.13(1) Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014.
s.20(1) Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014.
p24 Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014: Reform of anti-social behaviour powers , Home Office, July 2014.
s.1(6) Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014.
s.7 Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014.
s.4 Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014.
s.9 Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014. .
s.10 Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014.
s.10 Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014; p26 Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014: Reform of anti-social behaviour powers, Home Office, July 2014.
s.8 Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014.
Accent Foundation Ltd v Lee  EWCA Civ 665.
p26 Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014: Reform of anti-social behaviour powers , Home Office, July 2014.
s.84A Housing Act 1985; ground 7A, Sch.2 Housing Act 1988
s.21 Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014.
under s.153A Housing Act 1996.
under s.153B Housing Act 1996.
under s.153D Housing Act 1996.
under s.1 Crime and Disorder Act 1998.
s.21 Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014.
Amicus Horizon Ltd v Thorley  EWCA Civ 817; Doey v Islington LBC  EWCA Civ 1825.
under s.1C Crime and Disorder Act 1998.