Rent repayment orders
Orders requiring a landlord or agent who has committed a relevant offence to repay rent, housing benefit or universal credit.
Rent repayment orders overview
A rent repayment order (RRO) requires repayment, of rent or housing benefit or housing costs element of universal credit paid in respect of a tenancy or licence, by a landlord/agent who has committed a particular offence listed in the legislation.
It is not necessary that the landlord/agent has actually been convicted, but in order to grant an RRO, a tribunal must be satisfied beyond reasonable doubt (the criminal standard of proof) that one of these offences has been committed.
An RRO can require the repayment of a sum of up to a maximum of 12 months’ rent.
Offences that can result in a rent repayment order
With effect from 6 April 2017, the relevant offences are:
using or threatening violence for securing entry into premises, under s.6 Criminal Law Act 1977
illegal eviction or harassment, under s.1 Protection from Eviction Act 1977
failure to comply with improvement notice, under s.30 Housing Act 2004
failure to comply with prohibition order, under s.32 Housing Act 2004
(from 6 April 2018) breach of banning order, under s.21 Housing and Planning Act 2016
having control of, or managing, an unlicensed property, under s.95 Housing Act 2004
having control of, or managing, an unlicensed house in multiple occupation (HMO), under s.72 Housing Act 2004
As an HMO licence cannot be transferred to another person, when a landlord acquires a tenanted property which requires and already has a licence, they cannot rely on the existing licence but must apply to the local authority for their own. They commit an offence if they do not.
Where the tenant's immediate landlord is an intermediate landlord, an RRO can only be made against that landlord. It cannot be made against the superior landlord. A RRO cannot be made against the director of a company landlord.
Applications for a rent repayment order
An application for an RRO is made to the First-tier Tribunal (Property Chamber), and can be made by an occupier or a local housing authority.
Applications should be made using Form RRO1.
In cases where there is an ambiguity about who the landlord is, whether the owner of the property or an agent, such as in the case of rent to rent agreements, the application for an RRO can be made against either of them or both of them jointly.
There is a fee for those wishing to apply for a RRO. Further fees are payable if a hearing is necessary.
Successful applicants can recover their application fees.. Applicants can request reimbursement of the application and hearing fees in the RRO application form (paragraph 9), any further written submissions, and at the hearing.
Costs in the First-tier Tribunal and the Upper Tribunal are awarded at the discretion of the relevant Tribunal. The Tribunal does not usually award legal costs unless the claim is unfounded or an applicant behaves unreasonably and the Tribunal decides it is appropriate to make a costs order.
An occupier can apply for an RRO to recover rent they have paid to the landlord/agent if the offence:
relates to housing that they were occupying under a letting agreement at the time of the offence, and
was committed in the period of 12 months ending with the day on which the application is made
Occupiers can apply to recover any period of rent during their occupancy, up to the maximum of 12 months, so long as they apply within the limit of 12 months from the date of the offence.
An occupier in this context is either a tenant or licensee of the landlord. Tenancies or licences for a term of more than 21 years are included.
Local authorities are empowered to help an occupier to apply for an RRO, for example by conducting proceedings on the occupier's behalf or by providing advice on how to do it.
A local housing authority can apply for an RRO to recover housing benefit or housing costs element of universal credit paid (to any person) if the:
offence relates to housing in the authority's area, and
authority has first served a notice of intended proceedings
In certain cases a local authority must consider applying for a rent repayment order in relation to property situated in its area. This will apply where a landlord has been convicted of an offence which either was first committed on or after 6 April 2017 or is a licensing offence first committed before that date and continuing after 5 April 2018.
A notice of intended proceedings must:
inform the landlord/agent that the authority intends to apply for an RRO and set out the reasons
state the amount that the authority seeks to recover
invite the landlord/agent to make representations within a specified period (of not less than 28 days), and
relate to a period of maximum 12 months of the landlord/agent committing the offence
The amount the authority seeks to recover cannot exceed the amount of housing benefit or universal credit paid (directly or indirectly) to the landlord/agent in the relevant period.
The authority can apply for an RRO after the expiry of the notice of intended proceedings and after it has considered any representations made.
Regulations prescribe that local authorities can use any money recovered under an RRO to meet the costs and expenses (whether administrative or legal) incurred in, or associated with, carrying out any of their enforcement functions in relation to the private rented sector.
In deciding whether to apply for an RRO in connection with an offence wholly committed on or after 6 April 2017, local housing authorities must have regard to the statutory guidance on Rent repayment orders under the Housing and Planning Act 2016 issued by the Secretary of State.
How a rent repayment order is made
The First-tier Tribunal must be satisfied beyond reasonable doubt (that is the criminal standard of proof) that the landlord has committed the offence. It is not necessary that the landlord or agent has been convicted of the offence.
The Tribunal should hold a hearing of the RRO applications if the facts are disputed.
Where tenants of an unlicensed house in multiple occupation (HMO) brought RRO proceedings against both a limited company named as the landlord on the tenancy agreement and its sole director, who was also a joint owner of the property, the Tribunal held that since there was no evidence of the company having any property interest in the HMO, the RRO should be made against the joint owner as the landlord.
An appeal against an RRO is made to the Upper Tribunal.
Rent repayment order amount
The amount of an RRO must relate to rent or benefits paid in respect of a period not exceeding 12 months during which the landlord was committing the offence. It must relate to amounts paid in 12 months ending with the date of the offence if the offence was harassment, illegal eviction or violence for securing entry into premises.
In deciding the amount, the First-tier Tribunal must take into account:
the conduct of the landlord
the financial circumstances of the landlord, and
whether or not the landlord has actually been convicted of a relevant offence or has received a financial penalty
In addition, where the application is made by the occupier the Tribunal must:
take into account the conduct of the occupier
deduct any housing benefit or universal credit paid in respect of rent
The First-tier Tribunal should take into account the seriousness of the offence committed and any other factors that appear to be relevant. In one case, the Upper Tribunal found that the First-tier Tribunal had not sufficiently considered evidence suggesting that the landlord was suffering from serious mental health conditions.
Full rent paid is the maximum that can be repaid under the RRO, but the Tribunal does not have to award it in all cases. The Tribunal can exercise discretion as to the RRO amount. The Upper Tribunal upheld the reduction in the RRO amount based on the occupier’s conduct where they were in rent arrears and obstructed inspections.
In some cases the Tribunal's discretion is limited to exceptional circumstances and the amount must be a maximum that the Tribunal has the power to order. It is when the RRO is made against a landlord who has been convicted of the offence or received a financial penalty and in favour of: 
a local authority
an occupier if the landlord has
used or threatened violence for securing entry into premises
illegally evicted or harassed an occupier
failed to comply with improvement notice
failed to comply with prohibition order
breached banning order
An applicant cannot ask for separate RROs or receive more than 12 months' rent even if a landlord commits several offences. 12 months' rent is the maximum which a landlord could be ordered to repay irrespective of the number, timing or duration of the offences.
The law does not restrict the amount of the RRO in favour of the tenant to the landlord's profit over the relevant period, that is to rent minus expenses. The Upper Tribunal held that while the landlord's payments for utilities used by the tenant may be deducted from the amount of rent, there is no automatic right to deduct all expenses, for example payments for maintenance and repairs or local authority fines.
The amount paid as tenancy deposit cannot be included in an RRO while it is still lawfully held as security for the performance of the tenants' obligations.
Last updated: 8 March 2022
s.40 Housing and Planning Act 2016; Housing and Planning Act 2016 (Commencement No. 5, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Regulations 2017 SI 2017/281; s.56 Housing and Planning Act 2016 provides that references to a tenancy includes a licence.
s.43(1) Housing and Planning Act 2016; Opara v Olasemo (HOUSING – RENT REPAYMENT ORDER – unlawful eviction) (2020) UKUT 96 (LC).
s.44 and s.45 Housing and Planning Act 2016.
s.40(3) Housing and Planning Act 2016.
see s.68(6) Housing Act 2004 and Taylor v Mina An Ltd (HOUSING – HOUSE IN MULTIPLE OCCUPATION)  UKUT 249 (LC).
Rakusen v Jepson & Ors, Safer Renting Intervenor  EWCA Civ 1150.
Kaszowska v White  UKUT 11 (LC).
s.41 Housing and Planning Act 2016.
Goldsbrough & Anor v CA Property Management Ltd & Ors (HOUSING – HOUSE IN MULTIPLE OCCUPATION)  UKUT 311 (LC).
s.42(1)(a) Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007. See also HM Courts and Tribunal Service, form EX50.
Rule 13 Tribunal Procedure (First-tier Tribunal) (Property Chamber) Rules 2013
s.29(2) Tribunals Court and Enforcement Act 2007.
Willow Court Management Company (1985) Ltd v Alexander  UKUT 290 (LC); r.13 The Tribunal Procedure (First-tier Tribunal) (Property Chamber) Rules 2013.
s.41(2) Housing and Planning Act 2016; Housing and Planning Act 2016 (Commencement No.5, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Regulations 2017 SI 2017/281.
34 Sarsfield Road, Perivale, Greenford, Middx UB6 7AE (case ref LON/00AJ/HMF/2018/0053, 15 May 2019); for a comment see nearlylegal.co.uk/2019/09/rent-repayment-orders-limitation-and-award-periods/; getrentback.org/blog/2019/05/25/appeal-successful-confirmation-of-rro-timing-under-hapa-2016/
s.56 Housing and Planning Act 2016.
s.49 Housing and Planning Act 2016.
s.48 Housing and Planning Act 2016, reg 5 Housing and Planning Act 2016 (Commencement No. 5, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Regulations 2017 SI 2017/281.
s.41(3) Housing and Planning Act 2016; Housing and Planning Act 2016 (Commencement No.5, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Regulations 2017 SI 2017/281.
s.42 Housing and Planning Act 2016.
Rent Repayment Orders and Financial Penalties (Amounts Recovered) (England) Regulations 2017 SI 2017/367.
s.41(4) Housing and Planning Act 2016.
s.43 Housing and Planning Act 2016.
Raza v Bradford Metropolitan District Council (HOUSING - HOUSE IN MULTIPLE OCCUPATION - CIVIL PENALTY ORDER - RENT REPAYMENT ORDER)  UKUT 39 (LC)
Taylor v Mina An Ltd (HOUSING – HOUSE IN MULTIPLE OCCUPATION)  UKUT 249 (LC); see also s. 40(1) and 40(3) of the Housing and Planning Act 2016.
s.53 Housing and Planning Act 2016.
ss.44 and 45 Housing and Planning Act 2016; Wilson v Campbell (HOUSING - RENT REPAYMENT ORDER)  UKUT 363 (LC).
ss.44 to 46 Housing and Planning Act 2016.
s.44 Housing and Planning Act 2016.
Williams v Parmar & Ors  UKUT 244 (LC).
AA v Rodriguez & Ors  UKUT 269 (LC).
Awad v Hooley (HOUSING - RENT REPAYMENT ORDER)  UKUT 55 (LC); Kowalek v Hassanein Ltd  UKUT 143 (LC).
s.46 Housing and Planning Act 2016, Ball v Sefton Metropolitan Borough Council (HOUSING - RENT REPAYMENT ORDER - application by local housing authority for repayment of universal credit)  UKUT 42 (LC)
Ficcara & Ors v James (HOUSING - RENT REPAYMENT ORDER)  UKUT 38 (LC)
ss. 43, 44 Housing and Planning Act 2016; Vadamalayan v Stewart and others  UKUT 0183 (LC); Chan v Bilkhu & Anor (HOUSING - RENT REPAYMENT ORDER - amount awarded)  UKUT 289 (LC).
Kowalek v Hassanein Ltd  UKUT 143 (LC).
s.47 Housing and Planning Act 2016.