Referral of a homeless applicant to another local authority
When a homeless applicant can be referred to another local authority because they have no local connection, or following an out of borough placement or private sector offer.
- When a referral can be made to another local authority
- Referrals because of no local connection
- Referrals within five years of an out of borough placement
- Referrals within two years of a private rented sector offer
- Referrals where there is a risk of violence
- Referrals to Scotland and Wales
- Local authority guidelines
- Applications made before 3 April 2018
When a referral can be made to another local authority
A local authority can refer an applicant to another local authority where any of the following three conditions for referral are met:
where the applicant has no local connection and a connection elsewhere
up to five years after an out of borough placement
in the two years after a private rented sector offer
Where one of three conditions for referral are met the local authority has the discretion whether or not to refer. The Code of Guidance advises that a local authority must not have a policy that extends to deciding in advance that in all cases where it can refer it will do so.
The process for making a referral depends on whether it is a:
Referrals because of no local connection
An applicant can apply to any local authority they choose to. It is unlawful for an authority to refuse to accept an application on grounds that the applicant has no local connection with it.
Normal residence, employment, family associations and other special reasons can all allow an applicant to establish a local connection.
The decision to make enquiries into an applicant's local connection is discretionary. A local authority does not have to refer an applicant with no local connection to another authority with which they has a local connection even if that is the express wish of the applicant.
A referral on the basis of local connection can be made where the applicant or any person who might reasonably be expect to reside with them:
has no local connection with the local authority to which the application was made
has a local connection with the other local authority
will not be at risk of violence in the other authority’s area
Local connection in two or more areas
Under local connection rules, a referral cannot be made if the applicant has a local connection with the area to which an application is made, even if their links with a second authority’s area are ‘stronger’.
If there is no connection with the area in which the application was made, but there is a local connection with more than one other authority, then the strength of any links, along with the applicant's preference, should be taken into account when deciding to which authority to refer the applicant.
Referrals within five years of an out of borough placement
Where a local authority placed an applicant in a second authority's area under a homelessness duty and the applicant subsequently makes a homelessness application to the second authority within five years of the placement, the second authority can refer the applicant back to the original authority. This is regardless of whether the applicant has a local connection to either area.
A referral can be made even if there is a risk of violence in the area of the first local authority. However, a local, authority should take this account in exercising its discretion whether to refer to the second authority. Where a referral is made it is then the responsibility of the first authority to ensure that any accommodation it secures is suitable for the applicant.
Referrals within two years of a private rented sector offer
An applicant who reapplies as homeless to a second authority within two years of having accepted a private rented sector (PRS) offer (in discharge of the local authority's main housing duty) can be referred back to the first authority (who made the original PRS offer) if there is a no risk of violence in its area. There is no requirement that the PRS accommodation was within the second authority’s area. This is regardless of whether the applicant has a local connection to either area.
Referrals where there is a risk of violence
An applicant cannot be referred to a second authority under the local connection rules or on reapplication after private sector offer if they (or any person who might reasonably be expect to reside with them) would be at risk of violence in the second authority’s area. They can be referred if they were placed in the area by another local authority within the last five years.
’Violence’ is defined as:
violence from another person (whether domestic violence or other)
threats of violence which are likely to be carried out
Domestic violence should not be restricted to physical violence and can include threatening behaviour, violence or abuse, whether it be psychological, physical, sexual, financial or emotional.
The Code of Guidance states that domestic violence is any ‘incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse’. This can be psychological, physical, sexual, financial or emotional. Controlling behaviour is ‘a range of acts designed to make a person subordinate and or dependent’. Coercive behaviour covers acts used to harm, punish or frighten.
The Code adds that ‘violence’ in general should not be given a restrictive meaning.
Referrals to Scotland and Wales
At the main duty stage a referral can made:
under the local connection rules, to a local authority in England, Scotland or Wales
when the out of borough placement or private rented sector offer conditions are met, to a local authority in England only (the required conditions cannot be met under the legislation governing Scottish or Welsh homelessness applications)
At the relief duty stage a referral can only be made to a local authority in England.
Local authority guidelines
The question whether the conditions for referral are met should be decided by agreement between the notifying authority and the notified authority.
When a local authority makes a decision about local connection, it can refer to the guidelines set out in the 'Procedures for referrals of homeless applicants to another local authority' (commonly known as the Local Authority Agreement). The purpose of the guidelines is to avoid, and where necessary resolve, disputes between local authorities. The guidelines also stress that the agreement between various local authorities does not replace the duty of such authorities to treat each case on its merits.
Applications made before 3 April 2018
For applications made before 3 April 2018, referrals can only be made at the main housing duty stage.
The current Homelessness Code of Guidance was introduced on 3 April 2018 and the references here are to this Code.
For applications made before this date, the recommendations of the 2006 Code of Guidance should apply.
Last updated: 17 March 2021
s.198 Housing Act 1996 as amended by s.4(5) Homelessness Reduction Act 2017.
s.198(1) Housing Act 1996; R v East Devon DC ex parte Robb (1997) 30 HLR 92, QBD; para 10.32 Homelessness Code of Guidance, MHCLG, Feb 2018.
s.184(2) Housing Act 1996
Hackney LBC v Sareen  EWCA Civ 351.
s.198(2) Housing Act 1996.
para 4.5 Local Authority Agreement, Local Government Association; R v Eastleigh BC Betts  2 AC 613, HL.
s.198(4) Housing Act 1996; Allocation of Housing and Homelessness (Miscellaneous Provisions) (England) Regulations 2006 SI 2006/2527.
s.198(2ZA) Housing Act 1996, as inserted by s.149(6) Localism Act 2011.
s.198(2) and (2ZA) Housing Act 1996 as amended by s.149(6) Localism Act 2011.
s.198 (3) Housing Act 1996.
Yemshaw v Hounslow LBC  UKSC 3.
paras 21.2 to 21.9 Homelessness Code of Guidance, MHCLG, Feb 2018.
para 21.19 Homelessness Code of Guidance, MHCLG, Feb 2018.
ss.198 and 201 Housing Act 1996.
s.198(A1) Housing Act 1996 inserted by s.5(8) Homelessness Reduction Act 2017; para 10.37 Homelessness Code of Guidance, MHCLG, Feb 2018.
s.198(5A) Housing Act 1996.
paras 1.4 and 1.5 Procedures for referrals of homeless applicants to another local authority, Local Government Association, 2018; R v Eastleigh BC Betts  2 AC 613, HL.